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About this blog: I post articles to offer timely and substantive college admission guidance on important topics and issues. Originally from New York, I have a B.S. from Hunter College in NYC and advanced professional degrees from the University of...  (More)

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Demystifying Early Application Options

Uploaded: Aug 29, 2019
1. Early Decision (ED): What Is It?
Early Decision is an application opportunity offered by many of the nation’s selective institutions that provides the promise of early feedback (an admission decision) in exchange for the student’s commitment to enroll if accepted. A student may only be active as an ED candidate at one college. If admitted ED, a student is expected to withdraw all other Regular Decision applications that might have been active and enroll at the ED school.

ED: Inside the Numbers
Think selectivity. Think rankings. “Admitting one to enroll one,” allows a college to use ED to leverage as many high yield students into its entering classes as possible. By contrast, many schools must admit 3-5 (or more) students in Regular Decision to enroll one, a lower yielding proposition. What you are looking at, then, is a fundamental enrollment management strategy. For every ED enrollment it achieves, a college can reduce its number of Regular Decision offers by as many as five-fold thereby improving selectivity and becoming more attractive in the college ranking process.

Possible ED Outcomes
Colleges will consider one of three outcomes when students apply ED: acceptance, deferral and denial. If accepted, the student is expected to enroll. When deferred or denied, however, the student is released from that commitment and effectively becomes a “free agent” who can pursue other options—including ED at another school. Deferred candidates will be considered again within the context of the Regular Decision review process.

Although you can’t apply to more than one ED school at a time, if you are rejected or deferred from your ED school in December after applying in November, you can apply to another school that offers an ED2 option; that deadline is usually in January. Although there is some admission advantage to applying ED2, most experts agree the benefit is not as great as it is for the initial ED cycle.

Special Note: Choosing the ED or EA option, should never limit you from applying to schools with non-binding rolling admissions, because that would negatively impact your admission status for a state school (a public university). Schools that use rolling admissions typically fill seats as they receive applications.

Who Benefits?
Whereas it has been a long-held notion that ED was reserved for only the very best candidates, it is now the case that “reasonably competitive” candidates can also benefit from the ED option as colleges seek to build their enrollments with “high yielding” students. In addition, ED will be an attractive option at many schools for the following:

• Students who do not require financial assistance
• Athletic recruits
• Legacy candidates
• Children of individuals who have consistently made donations to the college over time—larger donations may have more of an impact.

2. Early Action (EA): What Is It?
Early Action also affords students the opportunity to submit credentials to some highly selective colleges in return for notification ahead of the Regular Decision process. The big difference is that students who choose this option are not presumed to be declaring a first-choice interest in the colleges to which they apply EA. As a result, they are not committed to enroll if admitted and may, in many cases, apply EA to multiple schools. That said, a handful of institutions offer EA as a restrictive, “single choice” (EASC) option that prohibits students from applying EA to any other school. Be sure to read the fine print regarding each institution’s EA program. EASC is generally not a good bet for most students, most of the time.

EA Inside the Numbers
If you are still thinking selectivity and rankings, you are right on the mark! While EA candidates do not enroll at the same rate as admitted ED candidates (presumably 100%), they are still likely to enroll at a much higher rate than students who apply Regular Decision. Colleges know this because they track their yields on EA offers from year to year. They tend not to bend their academic standards for EA candidates. Rather, they are banking on the opportunity to realize higher conversion rates among high profile admitted students by making strong, positive connections with them early in the process.

Possible EA Outcomes
Much like the case with ED, EA outcomes include acceptance, deferral and denial. The only difference is that acceptance does not involve a commitment to enroll. Read on for more about “Next Steps” following an Early Action acceptance.

Who Benefits?
Unlike ED, EA really doesn’t improve one’s chances of admission. Why? Institutions are reluctant to commit places in the class to strong, but not superior students without first being able to compare them with the larger pool of candidates. EA does, however, provide peace of mind for those who use it early in the process.

3. Tips for Potential ED/EA Applicants

• Read the fine print for each institutional offering and understand your commitments before initiating an early application of any sort.
• Rather than looking for an “ED school,” focus on finding colleges that fit you well as you arrive at your short list of schools. If one of them becomes your absolute first choice, then ED should be a considered option.
• Do not apply ED unless you are dead certain of your commitment to enroll if accepted.
• Do not apply ED if you have not visited the campus first! Ideally, your visit will have included an overnight stay that enabled you to also attend classes and experience the campus culture.
• Resist the temptation to act on impulse. The feelings you have for a college now might change greatly over time leaving you committed to a place that is no longer where you want to be. Give yourself at least a month to reflect on your intended application before applying ED.
• Remember the ED Round II option. Many schools will give you the opportunity to “convert” your Regular Decision application during a second round of ED in January. The conditions are the same as with ED Round I, but you might be better prepared to make a commitment later in the year.
• Resolve all financial questions and concerns before applying ED. Once you are admitted, there can be no contingencies. Ask the school’s financial aid office to provide an “early estimate” of your expected family contribution (EFC) before you submit your ED application. Apply ED only if you are completely satisfied with the information you receive regarding your EFC.
Sprint to the finish! Even though you might hold an EA or ED acceptance letter, it is likely to be conditional on your completion of the senior at the same level of achievement that earned you the offer of admission. More than a few colleges are known to rescind offers of admission, when final transcripts show performances that drop measurably after offers of admission are secured.

4. Where to go for information?
The college’s website is the most reliable source of information on EA/ED application options. You must carefully read what options are offered and what limits are set. If you are uncertain or confused, contact the college directly, preferably in writing, and ask for clarification. How and when you apply to colleges are the most important factors in the application process. Schools are responsible for explaining their policies clearly on their websites and responding to inquiries promptly. If a college fails to perform these obligations, an applicant should reconsider the decision to apply to that school.
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